Steady dating and self esteem in high school students
In the family domain, ATOD use has been associated with familial substance use, poor parenting practices including harsh or inconsistent discipline, poor intrafamilial communication, and inadequate supervision and monitoring of children's behaviors and peer associations.In the peer domain, substance use has been linked to social isolation and association with ATOD-using and otherwise deviant peer networks.Mass media campaigns are of dubious value, especially if they are brief, aired in contexts that are unlikely to reach their target audience, and uncoordinated with a comprehensive, community-wide strategy. Strategies to Reduce Underage Alcohol Use: Typology and Brief Overview. Many adolescents are sexually experienced, but the extent of experience and risk varies for different groups of adolescents.Unfortunately, relatively little is also known about prevention on college campuses. "Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Substance Abuse Prevention." Psychological Bulletin 1105. Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data indicate that about half of all high school students report having engaged in intercourse at least once.Also effective is the vigorous enforcement of laws governing sales to minors, including using underage youth to buy alcohol and tobacco products in "sting" operations.Increasing excise taxes on alcohol and tobacco products has also been associated with reductions in use, as has linking apprehension for infractions of laws related to purchasing and consuming ATODs to suspension or revocation of driver's licenses.
While most drinking on college campuses occurs in neighborhood bars and residential contexts such as fraternities, relatively little has been done to develop and implement demonstration programs that increase enforcement of, and penalties for, selling or otherwise supplying liquor to underage students. Ennett, Susan; Tobler, Nancy S.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; and Flewelling, Robert L.1994. A Meta-Analysis of Project DARE Outcome Evaluations." American Journal of Public Health 941401. Sexual risk increases with the number of partners and the failure to use condoms.
Other preventive measures that target youth drivers include "zero tolerance" laws linking evidence of alcohol on the breath with suspension or revocation of driving privileges. Given the long latency period between infection and symptoms, most of these individuals were infected as adolescents.
The results of two decades of evaluative research have yielded considerable information suggesting that a number of approaches to adolescent ATOD use prevention do not work. More than 126,000 cases of AIDS among individuals ages twenty to twenty-nine had been diagnosed in the U. Estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adolescents range from 112,000 to 250,000 in the United States, although actual prevalence is not known because representative data are not available.
Protective factors in the family and school domains include strong intrafamilial bonds, positive family dynamics, and positive attachment to school.
In the community and environmental domains, strongly held adult values antithetical to substance use constitute protective factors, as do clearly communicated and consistently enforced regulations concerning use.